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After the Norman Invasion in the 12th century, the area of English influence (known as The Pale) gradually shrank back until it covered no more than the city of Dublin and its immediate outskirts. Ireland seems to have reverted to its tradition of occupying itself with internal struggles. While this happened, external interest in Ireland languished and so do our sources.
© 2000, 2003 Kass McGann. All Rights Reserved. The Author of this work retains full copyright for this material. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial private research or educational purposes provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.